Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2023


There is increasing concern in the United States about the difficulties that American workers are facing including concerns about limits on worker job mobility and how those limits affect workers’ wages and compensation, employee benefits, and finding their next job.2 Workers believe the challenges they face in changing jobs for better salary and benefits should be addressed so they have greater job mobility and opportunities for advancement. Workers are subject to restraints on job mobility across the spectrum of jobs, including those in executive-level positions as well as minimum- wage employees. Workers complain that they are not constrained in getting better jobs by their experience, training, or education but rather by their employers’ policies and employment practices, especially their growing use of employment contracts with restrictive practices that limit workers’ abilities to seek better work.3

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